英语语法

2020-3-5 689 3/5

英语语法

基础句型

5大句型:主谓(SV)、主谓宾(SVO)、主系表(SVC)、主谓宾宾(SVOO)、主谓宾宾补(SVOOC)

  1. 主-v1->
  2. 主-v2->宾
  3. 主-v3->表
  4. 主-v4->宾宾
  5. 主-v2->宾补

动词词性:v1:不及物动词 vi.;v2:及物动词 vt.;v3:系动词(link verb);v4:带有“给”的含义

8大成分

成分

地位

功能

性质

形式

主语

主干成分

动作发出者

n.

词/短语/句子

宾语

动作接收者

n.

词/短语/句子

谓语

动作

v.

时态/语态/情态/否定

表语

表现说明主语

n./a./ad.

词/短语/句子

补语

补充说明宾语

n./a./ad.

词/短语/句子

定语

修饰成分

修饰、限定名词

a.

词/短语/句子

状语

添加、补充状态

ad.

词/短语/句子

同位语

补充+解释

n.

词/短语/句子

三大修饰成分

定语

修饰名词成分。

性质:(a.)
核心:修饰n.
后置定语
被修饰名词后
前置定语
被修饰名词前
位置
定语

前:常为形容词或多个形容词并列。

后:常为短语、定语从句、动词不定式等。

状语

  1. 修饰形容词,对定语的限制
  2. 修饰一件事
被修饰词前/后
句前或句末
位置
ad.
性质
时间、地点、原因、结果、条件、让步、目的、比较、方式
分类
主要修饰动词、形容词和整个句子
功能:修饰
状语

同位语

功能:补充说明名词性成分

特征:本身为名词性成分

五大主干成分

谓语

动名词 ing
动词不定式:to v.
过去分词 pp.
现在分词 ving
分词
非谓语
否定
时态(时间和状态)
情态
语态
谓语
动词

时态

  1. 一般
  • 一般现在时

I drink coffee every day.

  • 一般过去时

The US declared independence in 1776.

  • 一般将来时

The athletes will leave Olympic village tomorrow.

  1. 进行(持续)
  • 现在进行时

I am studing instead of playing games now.

  • 过去进行时

I was playing ChiJi when the phone call came in.

过去时态中的when和while

when后跟短动作,一般用一般过去时;while后跟长动作,一般用过去进行时,若句中讨论的两个动作都是长动作,则均用过去进行时。

  • 将来进行时

Don't call me at six tomorrow, I'll still be sleeping then.

  1. 完成
  • 现在完成时

Till now, I have passed the post-graduate entrance examination.

  • 过去完成时

I had not learnt any konwledge of grammar before I toooks CET-6.

  • 将来完成时

Next year, I will have learnt English for 18 years.

语态

主动

一般

进行

完成

过去

did

was/were doing

had done

现在

do/does

am/is/are doing

have/has done

将来

will do

will be doing

will have done

被动

一般

进行

完成

过去

was/were done

was/were being done

had been done

现在

am/is/are done

am/is/are being done

have/has been done

将来

will be done

will be being done

will have been done

非谓语

和动作有关,但不是谓语

非谓语动词类型

句内成分

性质

动词不定式

可做除谓语外所有成分

n./a./ad.

动名词

主语、宾语、表语、同位语(名词性成分)

n.

分词

定语、状语、表语、补语(形容词、副词)

a./ad.

动词不定式

  1. 做主语:To think of you makes me happy.
  2. 做宾语:I can't bear to look back.
  3. 做表语:My task is to finsh this game.
  4. 做宾语补足语:I prefer him to come.
  5. 做定语:She founf a dresss to wear.
  6. 做状语:We live to love.
  7. 做同位语:I have a plan to go to China.

动名词

单个动作的事件化。本质还是n.

a.与普通名词相比,动名词强调动作性。

b.与动词不定式相比,强调客观存在的事件性。

  1. 做主语:Saying is easier than doing.
  2. 做宾语:They confessed loving each other.
  3. 做宾语补足语:We call the sport running.
  4. 做表语:The beast way is being real.

分词

区分正常单词的词。

现在分词:-ing,表主动。

过去分词:-ed,表被动。

  1. 做定语:分词结构在句中作定语时,分词的动作由它所修饰的名词主动/被动传达出来。

I'm studying the materials showing the economic trend.

  1. 做状语:分词结果在句中作状语时,分词的动作由句子中的主语主动/被动传达出来。

Looking at him, I  think of myself in the old days.

  1. 补充
  • 做表语

He is married.

  • 做补语

I'll get my car repaired.

  • 分词经常单独作形容词

A barking dog doesn't bite.

Clean water is safe to drink.

短语和词组

状语
表语、补语
定语
a./ad.
同位语
主语/宾语
表语/补语
n./pron.(代词)
非谓语:不定式、动名词、分词
谓语:时态、语态、情态
v.
句子成分性质

名词性短语

名词:可数名词、不可数名词、具象名词、抽象名词

限定词:

  1. 数词:one/two/first/second
  2. 代词:this/that/these/those
  3. 冠词:the/a/an/无

前置定语:

  1. 形容词或多个形容词并列
  2. 名词所有格:...的(所有)。 A'B(A一般为人、距离)

形容词性短语

  1. 多个形容词并列:black or white, young and old
  2. 名词所有格:A's B // B of A

Tim's bag.

Door of the house.

  1. 介词短语:prep. + 名词性短语

[A的]B->B of A(A非人)

Outlook on value.

  1. 复合型形容词短语:a.+a.=a.

The mistake of the beginners of English.

副词性短语

主要作状语:ad.+ad.

  1. 多个副词并列

again and again, quickly and correctly

  1. 介词短语:prep.+名词性短语

In the contemporary society,...

  1. 复合副词短语:ad.+ad.=ad.

He speaks English slowly to his students.

复杂句

方式
目的
目的
地点
比较
原因
让步
结果
条件
状语从句
并列句
同位语从句
主语从句
表语从句
宾语从句
名词性从句
非限制性定语从句
限制性定语从句
定语从句
复杂句

名词性从句

本质:在句中的名词性成分中放一个句子

特殊疑问句
陈述句:that
一般疑问句:whether/if
从句引导词的选择看句子内容
写作运用
形式主语从句
主要考点
同位语从句
主语从句
表语从句
宾语从句
分类
名词性从句

总结

从句

引导词

引导词是否做从句成分

陈述句

that

一般疑问句

whether/if

特殊疑问句

  1. 连接代词:what/who/whom
  2. 连接副词:where/when/why/how
  3. 连接形容词:which/whose
  1. 做主语/宾语/表语
  2. 做状语
  3. 作定语

状语从句

时间

when/as/while/before/after/till/until/since

  1. when、as、while
  • when泛指时间---当...时候

When the train came, I pushed him off the station.

  • as强调伴随性---随着...

As the train came,I pushed him off the station.

  • while指一段时间---在这段时间内

While the train was coming, I pushed him off the station.

  1. before、after
  • I'd like to drink a cup of water before we leave.
  • I'd like to drink a cup of water after I work out in the gym.
  1. till、until
  • till和until都表示“直到...时候”,本质无差别,till是until的缩略形式,多用在口语
  • 注意till/until肯定和否定的表达
  1. since 自从...

This building has been constructed since I was born.

  1. 特殊引导词

the minute、the moment、the second、every time、the day、as soon as...

地点

  1. where

Where you finding rubbish, I find gold.

  1. 特殊引导词:wherever、anywhere、everywhere

Wherever you go, I will follow.

原因(伴随)

  1. because、since、as、for

I feel happy beacuse the water is so good.

I have many responsibilites since I am a teacher.

I go back home as the shop is closed.

I cired out for I saw this world again.

  1. now that、in that、considering that、given that

We have to fight in that our planet is facing a disaster.

Considering that our planet is facing a disaster we have to fight.

结果

  1. so...that:后跟形容词或副词---是如此...以至于...

She reacts so quickly that no one can catch her.

  1. such...that:后跟名词---是如此一个...以至于...

He is such a bastard that everybody hates him.

目的

so that、in order that

条件

  1. if、unless

和虚拟语气的区别:虚拟语气是不可实现的,条件是可以实现的

If you ask Tom, he will give it to you. 更笃定

If you ask Tom, he would give it to you. 摇摆不定

You will be late unless you start earlier.

  1. 特殊引导词:as、only if、providing that、supposing that、in case that

As the price of gold reached the lowest point in history, Chinese dama bought huge amounts of gold in 2014.

Only if you can fly, you can have the entire view.

让步

  1. though:尽管---多放在居中

although:尽管---多放在句首

Although he rejected you once, you need to ask home again.

You need to ask him again though he rejected you once.

even though:尽管---多放在句首

even if:尽管---多放在句首

  1. no matter、whatever、whoever、wherever、whenever、however

It would be a disaster no matter who did it.

比较

  1. as:像...一样
  2. that:比...

方式

  1. as

You need to play guiter as I do.

  1. as if、as though:就好像(口语中常用 like)

She looks as if she know everything.

  1. as the way:按...方式...

I'll never do it as the way you do it.

定语从句

非限制性定语从句VS同位语从句
非限制性定语从句
限制性定语从句
分类
根据可能出现结构,寻找符合内容逻辑的n./代词
翻译从句
怎么找
n./代词,被从句修饰的对象
是什么
先行词
分类
连找主句与从句
是什么
充当从句成分
作用
关系词
定语从句

被修饰词与定语从句的排列

  1. 先行词与定语之间插入定语

There are many thousands of stars in the  sky that are like the sun.

  1. 先行词与定语之间插入状语

Do you remember on afternon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed necklace?

  1. 先行词与定语之间插入谓语

A new master will come tomorrow who will teach you German.

关系词(从句引导词)

与被修饰词有指代关系的词(在从句中代指被修饰词)

  1. 指代表意
  2. 连接主句从句(从句引导词)
  3. 做从句成分

定语从句引导词(关系词)的选择

  1. 看被修饰词(n.)内容:人、物、事
  2. 看其在从句中的位置:主语、宾语、状语

总结

[whose+n.]做主语或宾语
作定语
who/that
做主语
who/whom/that
作宾语
who/whom/that/whose
先行词是人

物&事

that和which辨析

  1. 先行词是人+物:关系词只能用that。因为that既可以指人又可以指物
  2. all、little、few、much、none、the first做先行词只能用that。因为以上代词既可以指人又可以指物
  3. any、only、all、every、no、some、much、few、little、序数词、最高级只能用that。因为以上代词既可以指人又可以指物
  4. 当紧邻关系词含有介词时,只能用which
  • 从句谓语动词与介词搭配的习惯

Water is the natural medium in which fish live.

The documents for which they were seraching have been recovered.

  • 从句形容词与介词搭配

He referred me to some reference books with which I am not very familiar.

  • 从句引导词作为前文短语搭配的一部分

This is our classroom, in the front of which there is a teacher's desk.

总结

介词+关系代词结构中
整个句子(即非限制性定语从句)
先行词
which
the first
all
none
little
much
few
先行词为常见代词
人+物
先行词
that
先行词是物或事

看被修饰词(先行词)的内容

关系副词:代指先行词为时间、地点、原因,在从句中作状语的关系词

  1. 时间

I will neber forget the day when we first met in the hotel.

  1. 地点

This is the hotel where I spent a wonderful time with you.

  1. 原因

This is the reason why I didn't come here.

如何区分关系副词引导的定语从句和状语从句?

定语从句的关系副词前一定有其指代的时间、地点、原因的先行词。

关系副词(when、where、why)=介词+which

  1. When will you come back?

I will come back on Monday.

---when=on Monday(which=Mondy)

  1. Where were you last night?

I was at the bar last night.

---Where=at the bar(which=the bar)

  1. Why do you leave the country?

I leave the country for freedom.

---why=for freedom(which=freedom)

总结

介词+关系代词结构中
整个句子(即非限制性定语从句)
先行词
which
the first
all
none
little
much
few
先行词为常见代词
人+物
先行词
that
先行词是物或事

关系词总结                                              

先行词(被修饰词)

关系词做从句主语

关系词做从句宾语

关系词做从句状语

特点

 人

who、that、whose+n.

whom、who、that

-----

关系词做宾语可省略

which、that

that、which

-----

原因

why、for which

地点

where、prep.+which

时间

when、prep.+which

定语从句分类

限制性:I met your friend who is stayingg in Paris.

非限制性:I met your mother, who is staying in Paris.

非限制性定语从句的先行词具有唯一性,无需紧随限定。也就是关系词和被修饰词间有没有逗号,有则是非限制性。

定语从句 VS 同位语从句

定语从句

同位语从句

that是否做从句成分

是(主语/宾语)

翻译

“...的”,从后往前翻译

直译

  1. I've made a promise that many influence my life.(定语从句)
  2. I've made a promise that I will this contest someday.(同位语从句,名词性从句)

特殊句式

倒装

本质:基于强调部分内容的目的对句序进行调整

如:

Dr.Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory, said that the earthquate was a 6.9.

句子主要信息提前,省略宾语从句引导词that

The earthquate was a 6.9, Dr.Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory, said.

调整语序,方便理解,形成倒装

The earthquate was a 6.9, said Dr.Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory.

引用句的倒装:

{某人所说的话}, said xxx(人),(同位语补充说明身份).

全部倒装

  1. There be...  存在,有

There is a girl. -> A girl is there.

There is no gap between mind and matter. -> No gap between mind and matter is there.

  1. 主系表->表系主(尾重)

My take-home essay about the evolution of language is attached. -> Attached is my take-home essay about the evolution of language.

  1. 主谓状->状谓主

A beast hides in the bush.->In the bush hides a best.

部分倒装

部分谓语动词(助动词)提于主语前:陈述句->一般疑问句。(助动词提前)

  1. 否定副词或词组位于句首,需要部分倒装

倒装前:We can not only make money but enjoy ourselves through that.

倒装后:Not only can we make money but enjoy ourselves through that.

  1. Only  位于句首,需要部分倒装
  2. 虚拟条件句省略if,从句需要部分倒装

倒装前:If he had kept his word, the problem would have been solved.

倒装后:Had he kept his word, the problem would have been solved.

强调句

句型:It is/was + 被强调的对象+引导词(that/who,只2个)+剩下的部分

一般句:Tom went to the cinema last night.

强调句:It was Tom who went to the cinema last night.

It was the cinema that Tom went to last night.

原句:That he told me not to do it dirves me to continue.

形式主语从句:It dirves me to continue that he told me not to do.

强调句:It is that he told me not to do it dirves me to continue.

虚拟语气

要义:虚拟---实际未发生或不可能发生的事情。

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